In some countries, performance on indicators that are strong associated with infant and young child survival (e.g. early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding) is alarmingly low across sociodemographic differentiators, highlighting the urgent need for comprehensive national programmes that adopt a more inclusive community-wide approach. The rates of infant and young child feeding indicators showed considerable variation between countries as did the upstream factors associated with poor feeding practices, indicating the need for policy makers to tailor their programs to improve infant and young child feeding practices based on local evidence. Predominant breastfeeding (the practice of providing alternative fluids such as fruit juice or sugar water in addition to breastmilk) ranges from 20% to 30% across the region, indicating that major gains towards in infant survival may be gained by focussing education efforts on reducing the use of non-milk liquids within the first six months of life. Bottle-feeding rates varied widely across countries, from less than 5% in Nepal to 27% in Sri Lanka. In all countries, the practice was associated with urban residence, maternal employment, higher maternal educational attainment and higher household wealth indicating that programmes to reduce rates of bottle-feeding may need to be independent of other infant and young child feeding programmes. Timely complementary feeding rates appear high in all countries; however, the dearth of information on the adequacy and diversity of complementary foods given to young children indicating a focus for future infant and young child feeding research.